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Believe it or not

the effect of athlete's crisis communication on trustworthiness and reputation in case of doping allegations

Die Dissertation untersucht die Wirkung von Verteidigungsstatements gegen Dopingvorwürfe mittels digitaler Medien auf die Bewertung der Vertrauenswürdigkeit und Reputation der betroffenen Athletinnen und Athleten. Die Untersuchung zweier realer Verdachtsfälle zeigt, dass eine öffentliche Verteidigung hauptsächlich unterstützende Reaktionen hervorruft, sowie zu einer Steigerung der Einschätzung der Vertrauenswürdigkeit führen kann. Die erste experimentelle Studie zeigt, dass eine Rechtfertigung zur vergleichsweise besten Bewertung der Vertrauenswürdigkeit und Reputation des betroffenen Athleten führt. In der zweiten Studie wird aufgezeigt, dass das Verbreitungsmedium keinen Einfluss auf die Einschätzung des Athleten hat und auch die Dopingprävalenz einer Sportart hat keinen Einfluss auf die Bewertung des Athleten wie die dritte Studie zeigt. Die Ergebnisse der vierten Studie offenbaren, dass unterstützende Nutzerkommentare eine positive Wirkung auf die Bewertung des Athleten ausüben.

Titel: Believe it or not
Untertitel: the effect of athlete's crisis communication on trustworthiness and reputation in case of doping allegations
Verfasser: Pöppel, Katharina Gisela GND
Gutachter: Strauß, Bernd GND
Organisation: FB 07: Psychologie und Sportwissenschaft
Dokumenttyp: Dissertation/Habilitation
Medientyp: Text
Erscheinungsdatum: 2015
Publikation in MIAMI: 22.09.2015
Datum der letzten Änderung: 22.09.2015
Schlagwörter: Doping; Krisenkommunikation; Vertrauen; Reputation; digitale Medien
Fachgebiete: Psychologie; Sport, Spiele, Unterhaltung; Sozialwissenschaften, Soziologie, Anthropologie
Sprache: Englisch
Format: PDF-Dokument
URN: urn:nbn:de:hbz:6-38239448701
Permalink: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:hbz:6-38239448701
Onlinezugriff:
Inhalt:
1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 11
2 Social media ............................................................................................................... 16
2.1 Definition ............................................................................................................ 16
2.2 Dissemination and application ............................................................................ 16
2.2.1 Prevalence .................................................................................................... 16
2.2.2 Motives for application ................................................................................ 17
2.2.3 News coverage of journalistic sources ........................................................ 18
2.2.4 Athlete’s use of social media transmitted communication .......................... 20
2.2.5 Recipient’s perception of internet affine athletes ........................................ 21
2.3 Resulting features of social media application ................................................... 22
2.3.1 Immediacy and availability .......................................................................... 22
2.3.2 Credibility .................................................................................................... 23
2.3.3 Parasocial interaction ................................................................................... 24
2.3.4 Social swarming ........................................................................................... 25
2.3.5 Gatekeeping and framing ............................................................................. 26
2.3.6 Opportunities and risks ................................................................................ 27
3 Trust and reputation ................................................................................................... 28
3.1 Trust as psychological construct ......................................................................... 28
3.1.1 Definition of trust ........................................................................................ 28
3.1.2 Forms of trust ............................................................................................... 29
3.1.3 Separation from other constructs ................................................................. 30
3.1.4 The integrative model of organizational trust and its adaption to sports ..... 31
3.1.5 Trust research in sports ................................................................................ 34
3.2 Measurement of trust .......................................................................................... 34
3.3 Building trust via the internet ............................................................................. 37
3.4 Trust repair .......................................................................................................... 38
3.4.1 Definition ..................................................................................................... 38
3.4.2 Stages on the way to repair trust .................................................................. 39
3.4.3 Conditions for trust repair ............................................................................ 39
3.5 Reputation - a related construct .......................................................................... 41
3.5.1 Definition and separation from trust ............................................................ 42
3.5.2 Differentiation from image .......................................................................... 43
3.5.3 Reputation in sports ..................................................................................... 44
3.5.4 Measuring reputation ................................................................................... 44
3.6 Proposition of a new model of trust and reputation ............................................ 45
4 Crisis communication ................................................................................................ 49
4.1 Definition of key concepts .................................................................................. 49
4.2 Crisis communication models ............................................................................. 50
4.2.1 Image repair theory ...................................................................................... 50
4.2.2 Situational crisis communication theory ..................................................... 53
4.2.3 Social-mediated crisis communication model ............................................. 57
4.3 Empirical findings concerning crisis communication ........................................ 58
4.3.1 Application of crisis communication strategies ........................................... 58
4.3.2 Influencing factors on crisis communication ............................................... 60
4.4 Changes in crisis communication through social media ..................................... 61
4.4.1 Delayed implementation of online crisis communication ........................... 61
4.4.2 Relevance of social media during crises ...................................................... 62
4.5 Crisis communication via social media and the internet .................................... 63
4.6 Crisis communication in sports .......................................................................... 66
5 Doping ....................................................................................................................... 71
5.1 Definition ............................................................................................................ 71
5.2 Dissemination and forms .................................................................................... 73
5.2.1 Prevalence .................................................................................................... 73
5.2.2 Forms and methods ...................................................................................... 77
5.3 Defeating doping ................................................................................................ 79
5.3.1 Penalty system of the WADA ...................................................................... 79
5.3.2 The execution of anti-doping laws .............................................................. 80
5.3.3 Prevention programs .................................................................................... 81
5.4 Psychological perspective ................................................................................... 81
5.4.1 Moral disengagement vs. socialization ........................................................ 82
5.4.2 Motives ........................................................................................................ 82
5.4.3 Attitudes ....................................................................................................... 83
5.4.4 Behavior models .......................................................................................... 85
5.5 Sociological perspective ..................................................................................... 89
5.5.1 Societal perspective on doping .................................................................... 89
5.5.2 Media coverage as public reaction on doping ............................................. 91
6 Research Question ..................................................................................................... 92
7 A trustworthiness measure in sports .......................................................................... 97
8 Case study Alberto Contador ..................................................................................... 99
8.1 Specific research question .................................................................................. 99
8.2 Experimental design and sample ........................................................................ 99
8.3 Construction of the coding instrument ............................................................. 100
8.4 Results ............................................................................................................... 100
8.4.1 Evaluation of Contador’s defense statement ............................................. 100
8.4.2 The public’s reaction to Contador’s defense via Facebook ....................... 101
8.5 Discussion ......................................................................................................... 102
9 Evi Sachenbacher-Stehle ......................................................................................... 104
9.1 Specific research question ................................................................................ 104
9.2 Method .............................................................................................................. 105
9.3 Results ............................................................................................................... 106
9.4 Discussion ......................................................................................................... 108
10 Influencing factors on the perception of doping defense statements ..................... 110
10.1 Impact of different crisis communication strategies ....................................... 111
10.1.1 Study-specific background ...................................................................... 111
10.1.2 Specific research question and hypotheses .............................................. 112
10.1.3 Method ..................................................................................................... 113
10.1.4 Results ...................................................................................................... 116
10.1.5 Discussion ................................................................................................ 117
10.2 Impact of the dissemination channel .............................................................. 120
10.2.1 Study-specific background ...................................................................... 121
10.2.2 Specific research question and hypotheses .............................................. 122
10.2.3 Method ..................................................................................................... 123
10.2.4 Results ...................................................................................................... 126
10.2.5 Discussion ................................................................................................ 128
10.3 Impact of the doping prevalence of a type of sport ........................................ 130
10.3.1 Study-specific background ...................................................................... 131
10.3.2 Specific research question and hypotheses .............................................. 132
10.3.3 Method ..................................................................................................... 133
10.3.4 Results ...................................................................................................... 135
10.3.5 Discussion ................................................................................................ 139
10.4 Specification of applied measures .................................................................. 141
10.4.1 Development of a scale to assess a person’s reputation .......................... 141
10.4.2 Improvement of the German short version of the PEAS ......................... 142
10.5 General discussion of the results .................................................................... 144
11 Impact of user comments on a defense statement ................................................. 148
11.1 Study-specific background ............................................................................. 148
11.2 Specific research question and hypotheses ..................................................... 150
11.3 Method ............................................................................................................ 152
11.3.1 Pretests ..................................................................................................... 153
11.3.2 Study design ............................................................................................. 154
11.3.3 Independent variables .............................................................................. 155
11.3.4 Dependent measures ................................................................................ 156
11.3.5 Control variables ...................................................................................... 157
11.3.6 Sample ..................................................................................................... 157
11.4 Results ............................................................................................................. 159
11.4.1 Examination whether positive comments were beneficial at all.............. 159
11.4.2 Comparison of the effects of positive and negative user comments........ 161
11.4.3 Check for suspicion or positive differentiation in case of unanimity ...... 163
11.4.4 Effect of user comments on causal attributions ....................................... 163
11.4.5 Willingness to perform a trusting action ................................................. 164
11.4.6 Test of a combined model for reputation and trust .................................. 166
11.4.7 Evaluation of the adapted short PEAS to assess public doping attitudes 166
11.4.8 Further calculations ................................................................................. 167
11.5 Discussion ....................................................................................................... 169
12 Final discussion ..................................................................................................... 174
13 References .............................................................................................................. 184
Appendix ..................................................................................................................... 224
Erklärungen ................................................................................................................. 233