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Digitalization of High Street Retail

Design, Development, and Evaluation of a Multi-sided Digital Community Platform

In many cities, high street retail has lost ground due to the rise of e-commerce and digital retail business models, which is particularly damaging to traditional small and medium-sized businesses. This thesis examines how local businesses can jointly participate in digitalization. A digital platform is designed, implemented, and evaluated, which connects the digital and physical high street. Customers can plan their shopping trips, track them digitally while shopping, receive personalized offers, and interact with retailers. Companies and city officials receive data-driven insights into customer behavior to adapt their offers according to their needs. From a theoretical point of view, the work integrates aspects of customer experience and service research regarding value co-creation with methods from information systems to derive design knowledge for IT platforms in high street retail.

Der innerstädtische Einzelhandel hat durch den Online-Handel und neuartige digitale Dienste vielerorts an Stellenwert verloren, was insbesondere traditionsreichen kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen schadet. Die Arbeit untersucht, wie lokale Unternehmen gemeinsam an der Digitalisierung partizipieren können. Es wird eine digitale Plattform gestaltet, implementiert und evaluiert, welche die digitale und physische Innenstadt miteinander verbindet. Kunden können ihren Einkaufsbummel planen, in der Stadt digital nachverfolgen, personalisierte Angebote erhalten und mit Händlern interagieren. Unternehmen und städtische Aufgabenträger erhalten datengetriebene Einblicke in das Kundenverhalten, um ihre Angebote bedarfsgerecht anzupassen. Aus theoretischer Sicht integriert die Arbeit Aspekte der Einkaufserlebnis- und Dienstleistungsforschung zur gemeinsamen Wertschöpfung mit Methoden der Wirtschaftsinformatik, um Gestaltungswissen für IT-Plattformen im innerstädtischen Einzelhandel abzuleiten.

Titel: Digitalization of High Street Retail
Untertitel: Design, Development, and Evaluation of a Multi-sided Digital Community Platform
Übersetzter Titel Digitalisierung des Innerstädtischen Einzelhandels
Gestaltung, Entwicklung und Evaluation einer mehrseitigen digitalen Plattform
Verfasser: Betzing, Jan Hendrik GND
Gutachter: Becker, Jörg GND
Organisation: FB 04: Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät
Dokumenttyp: Dissertation/Habilitation
Medientyp: Text
Erscheinungsdatum: 2019
Publikation in MIAMI: 23.01.2020
Datum der letzten Änderung: 23.01.2020
Quelle: Kapitel 6 (Part B) erschien in der Erstveröffentlichung bei Springer Gabler (Zeitschrift HMD). Die finale Version des Artikels ist erreichbar unter: https://doi.org/10.1365/s40702-017-0343-0. Kapitel 13 (Part B) erschien in der Erstveröffentlichung bei Springer (Zeitschrift Electronic Markets). Der Artikel ist lizenziert unter den Bedingungen der Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Lizenz (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Die finale Version des Artikels ist erreichbar unter: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12525-019-00332-3. Kapitel 19 (Part B) erschien in der Erstveröffentlichung bei Elsevier. © 2019. Die in der Dissertation enthaltene Version des Artikels wird unter CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 Lizenz bereitgestellt (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Die finale Version des Artikels ist erreichbar unter: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser. 2019.102025.
Schlagwörter: Retail; Digitalization; IT Artifact; Customer Experience; Design Science Research
Handel; Digitalisierung; IT-Artefakt; Einkaufserlebnis; Gestaltungsorientierte Forschung
Fachgebiete: Informatik, Wissen, Systeme; Handel
Lizenz: InC 1.0
Sprache: Englisch
Förderung: Die in dieser Dissertation beschriebene Forschung entstand im Rahmen des Forschungs- und Entwicklungsprojekts "smartmarket² - Interaktive Einkaufserlebnisse in Innenstädten durch digitale Dienstleistungen" (Förderkennzeichen: 02K15A074). Das Projekt wird mit Mitteln des Bundesministeriums für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) im Programm "Innovationen für die Produktion, Dienstleistung und Arbeit von morgen" gefördert und vom Projektträger Karlsruhe (PTKA) betreut, wofür sich der Autor herzlich bedankt.
Format: PDF-Dokument
URN: urn:nbn:de:hbz:6-52149645251
Permalink: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:hbz:6-52149645251
Onlinezugriff:
Inhalt:
Preface ..... i
Acknowledgements ..... iii
List of Figures ..... xi
List of Tables ..... xiv
List of Abbreviations ..... xvi

Part A
1 Exposition ..... 1
1.1 Introduction and Motivation ..... 1
1.2 Problem Statement and Research Objective ..... 6
1.3 Research Methodology and Design ..... 8
1.4 Structure of the Dissertation ..... 11
2 Research Background ..... 15
2.1 Co-Creation of Value in the High Street Ecosystem ..... 15
2.2 Customer Experience and the Customer Journey ..... 18
2.3 Multi-sided Digital Platforms ..... 20
3 Design of a Multi-sided Community Platform for High Streets ..... 25
3.1 Descriptive Design Knowledge ..... 26
3.1.1 Digitalization of the Retailer-Customer Interface ..... 26
3.1.2 Digital Customer Experience in High Streets ..... 29
3.2 Prescriptive Design Knowledge ..... 32
3.2.1 Requirements for the Digital Platform ..... 32
3.2.2 Solution Design Entities ..... 38
4 Demonstration and Evaluation ..... 55
4.1 Expository Instantiation ..... 56
4.2 IT Artifact Evaluation ..... 60
4.2.1 Demonstrated Functionality ..... 62
4.2.2 Evaluation Results ..... 69
4.3 Fulfillment of Requirements ..... 74
4.4 Prospects for a Virtual High Street Community ..... 77
5 Closure ..... 81
5.1 Contributions to Theory and Practice ..... 82
5.2 Outlook ..... 86
A Appendix ..... 89

Part B
6 Interaktive, digitale Einkaufserlebnisse in Innenstädten ..... 93
6.1 Einkaufserlebnisse in Innenstädten imWandel ..... 95
6.2 Digitale Technologien für den Einzelhandel ..... 98
6.3 Digitale Einkaufserlebnisse ..... 100
6.4 Der innerstädtische Marktplatz als mobile Plattform ..... 104
6.5 Zusammenfassung und Ausblick ..... 107
7 New Service Development Through Action Design Research in Joint Research Projects ..... 109
7.1 Introduction ..... 110
7.2 Research Background ..... 113
7.2.1 Stakeholders and Goals in Joint Research Projects ..... 113
7.2.2 New Service Development ..... 115
7.2.3 Action Design Research ..... 116
7.3 NSD Through ADR in Joint Research Projects ..... 117
7.4 The CrowdStrom Case: a Joint Research Project ..... 119
7.4.1 Step 1: Ramp-up and Proposal Development ..... 119
7.4.2 Step 2: Early Conception Phase ...... 120
7.4.3 Step 3: (Actual) Research & Development ..... 121
7.4.4 Step 4: Dissemination ..... 122
7.5 Demonstrative Application of the Meta-Framework ..... 123
7.6 Discussion, Implications & Reflections ..... 126
7.6.1 Discussion of Design Decisions ..... 127
7.6.2 Implications for Project Stakeholders ..... 128
7.6.3 Limitations ..... 130
7.7 Conclusion ..... 131
8 Eliciting Customer Preferences for Shopping Companion Apps: A Service Quality Approach ..... 133
8.1 Introduction ..... 134
8.2 Theoretical Background ..... 136
8.2.1 Service Quality ..... 136
8.2.2 Research Model of Mobile App Service Quality ..... 138
8.3 Research Approach ..... 139
8.4 Results ..... 142
8.4.1 Relevance of MASQ Dimensions ..... 142
8.4.2 Customer Preferences Regarding Shopping Companion Apps ..... 143
8.5 Discussion ..... 146
8.6 Conclusion and Outlook ..... 149
9 In-store Technologies in the Retail Servicescape ..... 151
9.1 Introduction ..... 152
9.2 Research Background ..... 153
9.3 Research Method ..... 155
9.4 Digital Capabilities of In-store Technology ..... 156
9.5 Digital Capabilities in the Shopper-focused Decision Calculus ..... 161
9.6 Discussion and Conclusion ..... 163
10 Mirroring E-service for Brick and Mortar Retail: An Assessment and Survey ..... 165
10.1 Introduction ..... 166
10.2 Theoretical Background ..... 168
10.3 Mirroring E-Service Touchpoints for Brick and Mortar Retail ..... 170
10.3.1 Identification of Dominant E-service Touchpoints ..... 170
10.3.2 Mirrored E-Service Touchpoints ..... 171
10.4 Assessment of Mirrored E-Service Touchpoints ..... 177
10.4.1 Survey Research Approach ..... 177
10.4.2 Survey Results ..... 178
10.5 Discussion, Limitations, and Future Research ..... 180
10.6 Conclusion ..... 182
11 Design Principles for Co-Creating Digital Customer Experience in High Street Retail ..... 185
11.1 Introduction ..... 186
11.2 Research Background ..... 188
11.2.1 Customer Experience Theory ..... 188
11.2.2 Mobile Technology for Context-Aware Service in Retail ..... 189
11.3 Digital Customer Experience in High Street Retail ..... 190
11.4 Design Principles for Digital Customer Experience Creation ..... 196
11.5 Conclusion ..... 199
12 Data-driven Customer Journey Mapping in Local High Streets: A Domain-specific Modeling Language ..... 201
12.1 Introduction ..... 202
12.2 Research Background ..... 204
12.2.1 Customer Journeys ..... 204
12.2.2 Related Modeling Approaches ..... 205
12.3 Research Method ..... 206
12.4 A DSML for Online-Offline Customer Journeys ..... 208
12.4.1 Abstract Syntax ..... 208
12.4.2 Concrete Syntax / Semantics ..... 208
12.5 Demonstration of Utility and Evaluation of Form and Function ..... 210
12.6 Conceptual Comparison to Related Modeling Approaches ..... 211
12.7 Contribution, Limitations, and Outlook ..... 212
13 The Impact of Transparency on Mobile Privacy Decision Making ..... 217
13.1 Introduction ..... 218
13.2 Research Background ..... 220
13.2.1 Transparency of Personal Data Processing Practices ..... 221
13.2.2 EU General Data Protection Regulation ..... 222
13.2.3 Mobile Privacy Decision Making ..... 224
13.3 Method ..... 226
13.4 Results ..... 233
13.4.1 Descriptive Results ..... 233
13.4.2 Inferential Results ..... 234
13.4.3 Qualitative Results ..... 236
13.5 Discussion ..... 238
13.5.1 Interpretation of Results ..... 238
13.5.2 Implications for App Service Providers ..... 240
13.5.3 Limitations ..... 243
13.6 Conclusion ..... 243
13.A Appendix ..... 244
13.A.1 Comprehension of the Consequences of Consent Decisions ..... 244
13.A.2 Identifying Habituation ..... 245
13.A.3 Submit Times across Conditions ..... 246
13.A.4 Distribution of Comprehension Performance ..... 246
13.A.5 Rationales for Deciding on the Location Permission Request ..... 247
14 Designing Multi-sided Community Platforms for Local High Street Retail ..... 251
14.1 Introduction ..... 252
14.2 Research Background ..... 255
14.2.1 Co-Creation of Customer Experience in Service Ecosystems ..... 255
14.2.2 (Multi-sided) Platforms ..... 257
14.2.3 Virtual Communities in Retail ..... 258
14.3 Research Method ..... 259
14.4 Design and Implementation of the Community Platform ..... 262
14.4.1 Actors ..... 262
14.4.2 Platform Architecture ..... 263
14.4.3 Platform-Facilitated Interaction ..... 266
14.5 Multi-sided Community Platforms for Local High Street Retail ..... 268
14.6 Contribution and Outlook ..... 273
15 Beacon-based Customer Tracking across the High Street: Perspectives for Location-based Smart Services in Retail ..... 275
15.1 Motivation ..... 276
15.2 Research Background ..... 278
15.2.1 Multi-sided Community Platforms in High Street Retail ..... 278
15.2.2 Location-based Customer Analytics and Advertising ..... 279
15.3 Research Approach ..... 280
15.4 Customer Data Collection ..... 281
15.4.1 BLE Beacons on the High Street ..... 281
15.4.2 Embedding into the Community Platform ..... 282
15.5 Analytical Perspectives on Spatio-temporal Customer Data ..... 283
15.5.1 Micro-level Perspective ..... 284
15.5.2 Meso-level Perspective ..... 286
15.5.3 Macro-level Perspective ..... 288
15.6 Demonstration ..... 289
15.7 Discussion ..... 290
15.8 Conclusion and Outlook ..... 291
16 Privacy-friendly User Location Tracking with Smart Devices: The BeaT Prototype ..... 293
16.1 User Location Tracking—Friend or Foe? ..... 294
16.2 Prototypical Design and Implementation ..... 295
16.2.1 Technology Selection and Setting ..... 295
16.2.2 The BEAcon Tracking (BeaT) Algorithm ..... 296
16.3 Evaluation and Outlook ..... 298
17 Quantifying the Impact of Geospatial Recommendations: A Field Experiment in High Street Retail ..... 299
17.1 Introduction ..... 300
17.2 Theoretical Background ..... 302
17.2.1 Recommender Systems ..... 302
17.2.2 Customer Experience and Customer Journeys in High Streets ..... 303
17.3 Research Approach ..... 304
17.4 Geo-Recommendations in High Street Retail ..... 306
17.4.1 Digitalization of the High Street Ecosystem ..... 306
17.4.2 Field Experiment with an Instantiated Geo-Recommendation System ..... 307
17.5 Conclusion ..... 313
18 One Plug at a Time— Designing a Peer-to-Peer Sharing Service for Charging Electric Vehicles ..... 315
18.1 Infrastructures for Electric Vehicle Charging ..... 316
18.2 Research Approach ..... 317
18.3 The CrowdStrom Business Model and Prototype ..... 318
18.4 Evaluation and Outlook ..... 319
19 Customer Participation in Virtual Communities for Local High Streets ..... 321
19.1 Introduction ..... 322
19.2 Research Background and Hypotheses ..... 324
19.2.1 Virtual Communities in Retail ..... 324
19.2.2 Participation in Virtual Communities ..... 326
19.2.3 Research Model and Hypotheses ..... 328
19.3 Research Method ..... 332
19.3.1 Virtual Community Setting ..... 332
19.3.2 Measures and Questionnaire ..... 334
19.3.3 Sample and Data Collection ..... 334
19.3.4 Common Method Variance ..... 335
19.4 Results ..... 336
19.4.1 Measurement Model ..... 336
19.4.2 Structural Model ..... 337
19.5 Discussion ..... 339
19.5.1 Managerial Implications ..... 341
19.5.2 Limitations and Future Research Directions ..... 343
19.6 Conclusion ..... 344
19.A Appendix ..... 346
References ..... 347