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How open is open government data in developing countries?

An evaluation of open government data in Kenya using a case study of open government health data

Im 2011 trat Kenia in die Fußstapfen Marokkos, um das zweite Land aus Afrika zu werden, das Offene Regierungsdaten namens "Kenya Open Data Initiative" ins Leben ruft. Offene Regierungsdaten werden heutzutage als Maßstab für eine gute Regierungsführung angesehen. Dieses PhD-Forschungsprojekt entwickelt das Verständnis von offenen Regierungsdaten in den Entwicklungsländern weiter, indem es die Kernfrage stellt: Wie offen ist die Kenya Open Data Initiative? Aufgrund des sehr jungen OGD-Forschungsgebietes greift die Studie auf die Analyse des OGD-Ökosystems zurück, um Erkenntnisse über die Infrastruktur, Akteure, Institutionen und deren Beziehungen zueinander zu gewinnen und verstehen zu können. Die Ergebnisse dieser PhD-Studie haben ergeben, dass das OGD-Ökosystem ausgereift ist. Allerdings ist das Ökosystem aufgrund der Schwächen in den rechtlichen und politischen Rahmenbedingungen und die unterstützenden Institutionen sowie der mangelnden Fähigkeit der Akteure nicht tragfähig ist um die Potenziale von Regierungsdaten voll auszuschöpfen. Diese Studie zeigt zudem, dass obwohl Regierungsdaten verfügbar und zugänglich sind, gibt es dennoch nicht ausreichend entscheidungsrelevante Daten.

Titel: How open is open government data in developing countries?
Untertitel: An evaluation of open government data in Kenya using a case study of open government health data
Verfasser: Chirchir, Emmy
Gutachter: Kersting, Norbert Normdaten
Organisation: FB 06: Erziehungswissenschaft und Sozialwissenschaften
Dokumenttyp: Dissertation/Habilitation
Medientyp: Text
Erscheinungsdatum: 2017
Publikation in MIAMI: 19.12.2017
Datum der letzten Änderung: 19.12.2017
Schlagwörter: Offene Regierungsdaten; Partizipation; Afrika; Bürgerbeteiligung; Gesundheitssektor
Fachgebiete: Sozialwissenschaften, Soziologie, Anthropologie
Sprache: Englisch
Format: PDF-Dokument
URN: urn:nbn:de:hbz:6-30219430368
Permalink: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:hbz:6-30219430368
Onlinezugriff:
Inhalt:
1. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................17
Background to the study and context ................................................................................ 17
Definition of terms ............................................................................................................ 17
Open Government ......................................................................................................... 18
Open Data ..................................................................................................................... 19
Open Government + Open Data = Open Government Data? ........................................ 20
What is the ‘open’ in OGD? .......................................................................................... 22
Research Problem ............................................................................................................. 23
Research Questions ........................................................................................................... 26
RQ 1. What is the structure of OGD in Kenya and to what extent does it support OGD
in Kenya? ...................................................................................................................... 26
RQ 2. To what extent has the use of OGD influenced participation in government
decision or policy-making using the health sector in Kenya as a case study? .............. 26
Research purpose .............................................................................................................. 26
Research objective ............................................................................................................ 27
Philosophical and methodological approach ..................................................................... 28
Organisation of the dissertation ........................................................................................ 28
2. LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................................................30
OGD development on a global scale ................................................................................. 30
OGD in developing countries............................................................................................ 31
OGD’s potential value for developing countries............................................................... 32
3. CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATION ...........................................................................48
Opening up government data – an ecosystem understanding ........................................... 48
Borrowing a biology metaphor ......................................................................................... 49
An ecosystem framework .................................................................................................. 52
Figure 2: The OGD Ecosystem ......................................................................................... 56
Core ecosystem ................................................................................................................. 56
The Technology ............................................................................................................ 56
Data ............................................................................................................................... 58
Actors ............................................................................................................................ 61
The role of intermediaries and infomediaries ............................................................... 62
Periphery ecosystem ......................................................................................................... 66
Institutional and organizational factors ......................................................................... 66
Government as a ‘prosumer’ and Government as a platform ....................................... 66
Policy and legal frameworks ......................................................................................... 68
Socio-economic factors ................................................................................................. 69
Exogenous Factors ............................................................................................................ 70
4. THEORETICAL FOUNDATION ......................................................................72
Participation as the cornerstone of democracy .................................................................. 74
Participation Models ......................................................................................................... 77
New forms of Participation ............................................................................................... 80
Participation Theory as a Framework for Understanding OGD........................................ 84
Factors affecting participation........................................................................................... 86
Political will and Government responsiveness.............................................................. 86
Socio-economic Status and Participation ...................................................................... 87
Capacity, Skills and Motivation to Participate .............................................................. 88
Digital gaps ................................................................................................................... 89
OGD - Towards a more participatory government?.......................................................... 91
Spheres of Participation .................................................................................................... 92
Narrow Participation ..................................................................................................... 93
Broad Participation........................................................................................................ 93
Extended Participation .................................................................................................. 94
5. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY .................................................99
Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 99
Research Design .............................................................................................................. 101
A case study design ..................................................................................................... 101
Case selection .............................................................................................................. 102
The Case of Health Sector Data ...................................................................................... 104
Unit of analysis ........................................................................................................... 105
Researchers role .............................................................................................................. 105
Methods ........................................................................................................................... 106
Qualitative Methods .................................................................................................... 107
Qualitative interviews ................................................................................................. 107
Data collection ................................................................................................................ 108
Data collection – Phase One ....................................................................................... 110
Documents .................................................................................................................. 110
Web analytics .............................................................................................................. 110
Survey ......................................................................................................................... 110
Exploratory interviews ................................................................................................ 111
Data collection - Phase Two ....................................................................................... 112
Semi-structured interviews .................................................................................... 112
Data analysis ................................................................................................................... 113
Methodological assumptions and weaknesses ................................................................ 114
6. FINDINGS ..............................................................................................................116
Kenya’s geographical context ......................................................................................... 116
Phase Two Findings ........................................................................................................ 143
Case Study Analysis: OGD in the Health Sector in Kenya ......................................... 148
The Master Facility List (MFL) .................................................................................. 149
Conceptualizing and understanding of OGD .................................................................. 150
Role of Government .................................................................................................... 150
Role of the public/citizens ........................................................................................... 151
Role of other stakeholders ........................................................................................... 151
Use: Availability ............................................................................................................. 152
Use: Accessibility and Quality .................................................................................... 153
Use: Actionable ........................................................................................................... 160
Influence of OGD use in participation ............................................................................ 163
Government Engagement ............................................................................................ 163
Government Responsiveness ...................................................................................... 164
Impact and influence in decision and policymaking ................................................... 165
7. DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................170
How open is OGD in Kenya in the heath sector? ........................................................... 170
The Concept of OGD in Kenya ....................................................................................... 171
The context of OGD in Kenya ........................................................................................ 177
Imbalanced and unsustainable OGD ecosystem ......................................................... 177
Technology oriented ecosystem .................................................................................. 178
Institutional weakness ................................................................................................. 181
Weak policy and legal frameworks ............................................................................. 185
Use of OGD in Kenya ..................................................................................................... 195
Open Health Data Use ................................................................................................. 195
Direct and Indirect use ................................................................................................ 196
8. CONCLUSION ......................................................................................................208
Recommendations ........................................................................................................... 217
9. REFERENCES .......................................................................................................220
APPENDICES ............................................................................................................239
Appendix A. Interview Guide for phase 1 ...................................................................... 239
Appendix B. Interview Guide for phase 2 ...................................................................... 246
Appendix C. List of Interviewees ................................................................................... 252