Erweiterte Suche

"The best place for refugees is home."

sustainable refugee return to post-conflict societies ; a case study of Kosovo

Viele Flüchtlinge verharren seit Jahren in beengten Wohnsituationen unter unwürdigen Lebensbedingungen. Wenn die Möglichkeit zur Rückkehr in die Heimat besteht, geschieht dies meist unter nicht zufriedenstellenden Bedingungen und kann sogar zu erneuter Vertreibung oder Gewalt führen. Um dies zu vermeiden, wird eine nachhaltige Flüchtlingsrückkehr angestrebt. Diese Dissertation präsentiert eine präzisere Definition nachhaltiger Rückkehr und entwickelt sieben Kriterien nachhaltiger Rückkehr. Mit Hilfe qualitativer Methoden testet sie diese Definition anhand des Fallbeispiels Kosovo und vergleicht sechs in den Kosovo zurückkehrende Minderheiten. Abschließend liefert sie einen überarbeiteten theoretischen Rahmen und gibt Politikempfehlungen, um Flüchtlingsrückkehr zu verbessern. Zusammenfassend zeigt diese Arbeit, dass die Rückkehr erfolgreicher ist und positiv zum Aufbau von Nachkriegsgesellschaften beitragen kann, wenn die Kriterien im Heimatland den definierten Standards entsprechen.

Refugees and their escape from violent conflicts or environmental disasters play a considerable role in international politics and are a key concern in social science research. When refugees leave their home country, they surely do not do this without the wish to return one day. However, returning is not always a feasible option, especially when the home state still struggles for peace and freedom. At best a refugee return to their home country needs to be “sustainable.” The thesis at hand gives a more appropriate and more precise definition of a sustainable return and develops seven criteria that enable a sustainable return. It further tests the definition and the criteria practically by analyzing six minority communities returning to post-conflict Kosovo. At the end, it critically revises the theory of sustainable return following discrepancies found between theory and practice and it gives focused policy recommendations to improve return to Kosovo and other post-conflict societies.

Titel: "The best place for refugees is home."
Untertitel: sustainable refugee return to post-conflict societies ; a case study of Kosovo
Verfasser: Hinz, Julia GND
Gutachter: Meyers, Reinhard GND
Organisation: FB 06: Erziehungswissenschaft und Sozialwissenschaften
Dokumenttyp: Dissertation/Habilitation
Medientyp: Text
Erscheinungsdatum: 2013
Publikation in MIAMI: 15.08.2014
Datum der letzten Änderung: 27.07.2015
Schlagwörter: Flüchtlingsrückkehr; Integration; Kosovo; nachhaltig; Nachkriegsgesellschaft; Minderheit
refugee return; integration; Kosovo; sustainable; post-conflict societies; minority
Fachgebiete: Politikwissenschaft; Sozialwissenschaften, Soziologie, Anthropologie
Sprache: Englisch
Format: PDF-Dokument
URN: urn:nbn:de:hbz:6-72339338438
Permalink: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:hbz:6-72339338438
Onlinezugriff:
Inhalt:
Table of Figures ............................................................................................................... vi
Abbreviations ................................................................................................................ viii
Spelling Rules .................................................................................................................. xi
Declaration .................................................................................................................. xii
Acknowledgements ....................................................................................................... xiii
PART I: INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................... 1
1. Introduction .............................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Introductory Remarks on this Thesis ................................................................ 1
1.2 Literature Review on Refugee Return .............................................................. 4
PART II: METHODOLOGY .................................................................................. 11
2. Methodological Approach ..................................................................................... 11
2.1 Case Studies and the Comparative Method .................................................... 15
2.2 The Selection of the Case Studies .................................................................. 17
2.3 Research Questions and Outline of the Study ................................................ 19
2.4 Definition of Variables ................................................................................... 20
PART III: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK .......................................................... 21
3. Conceptual Approach to Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Sustainable Return ................................................................................................. 21
3.1 Post-Conflict Reconstruction .......................................................................... 21
3.2 Where Do Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Refugee Return Meet? ............ 25
3.3 Sustainable Return .......................................................................................... 26
3.3.1 Definition of Sustainable Return ........................................................ 26
3.3.2 Why to Promote Sustainable Return? ................................................. 29
4. Criteria for Sustainable Return ............................................................................ 31
4.1 Physical Security ............................................................................................ 33
4.2 Economic Opportunities ................................................................................. 38
4.3 Reparation and Housing ................................................................................. 42
4.3.1 Restitution of Immovable Property and Compensation Thereof ........ 43
4.3.2 Challenges in the Property Restitution Process .................................. 44
4.3.2.1 Abandonment Laws .............................................................. 44
4.3.2.2 Secondary Occupation .......................................................... 45
4.3.2.3 Damaged and Destroyed Houses .......................................... 45
4.3.2.4 Loss or Destruction of Property Records .............................. 46
4.3.3 Consequences of the Presence or the Lack of Reparation .................. 46
4.4 Availability and Quality of Social Services .................................................... 49
4.4.1 Education ............................................................................................ 49
4.4.2 Health Care ......................................................................................... 54
4.4.2.1 Impact of Conflicts on Health and Health Systems .............. 54
4.4.2.2 Rehabilitation of the Health System ..................................... 56
4.4.2.3 Health Care for Returnees .................................................... 57
4.4.2.4 Health Care in the Return Process ........................................ 58
4.4.3 Infrastructure ....................................................................................... 60
4.4.3.1 Access to Clean Water and Sanitation .................................. 61
4.4.3.2 Electricity .............................................................................. 62
4.4.3.3 Transportation Systems ........................................................ 63
4.4.3.4 The Returnees and Infrastructure .......................................... 63
4.5 Legal Security for the Returnees within a Strengthened Rule of Law ........... 66
PART IV: EMPIRICAL ANALYSES ..................................................................... 72
5. Kosovo – Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Refugee Return .................................. 72
5.1 Kosovo – A Brief Overview ........................................................................... 73
5.2 From Tito’s Equality Concept to Milošević’ Rule ......................................... 75
5.3 From Conflict Escalation to Conflict Resolution ........................................... 79
5.3.1 The Political Developments under the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) ............................................................................... 79
5.3.2 Revenge Attacks against Minorities ................................................... 82
5.4 The Reconstruction Process in Kosovo .......................................................... 84
5.4.1 Re-establishing Security ..................................................................... 85
5.4.2 The Restoration of Basic Infrastructure and Social Services.............. 89
5.4.2.1 Energy Supply ...................................................................... 89
5.4.2.2 Transport Networks .............................................................. 90
5.4.2.3 Telecommunications ............................................................. 91
5.4.2.4 Housing ................................................................................. 92
5.4.2.5 Water ..................................................................................... 92
5.4.2.6 Reconstructing the Educational and the Health Care System .............................................................. 92
5.4.2.6.1 Education ........................................................... 93
5.4.2.6.2 Health Care ........................................................ 95
5.4.3 Reconstruction of the Framework of Governance .............................. 99
5.4.4 Jump-start of the Economy ............................................................... 102
5.5 Refugee Return to Kosovo ............................................................................ 105
5.5.1 Responsible Stakeholders ................................................................. 106
5.5.2 The Strategy for Communities and Returns (2009-2013)................. 110
5.5.3 A Sample Return Process to Kosovo ................................................ 112
5.5.3.1 Logistics of an Organized Return to Kosovo ..................... 112
5.5.3.2 Direct Assistance upon Arrival ........................................... 113
6. The Communities of the Roma, the Ashkali, and the Egyptians ..................... 114
6.1 Introduction: The Communities .................................................................... 114
6.1.1 RAE: One Community or Several Communities? ............................ 114
6.1.2 The Roma in Kosovo ........................................................................ 118
6.1.3 The Distinction between the Ashkali and the Egyptians .................. 119
6.2 Displacement and the Return of the RAE to Kosovo ................................... 122
6.2.1 The Three Waves of Displacement ................................................... 122
6.2.2 The Return of the RAE to Kosovo .................................................... 125
6.3 Challenges and Opportunities in their Return Process ................................. 128
6.3.1 The RAE Return to Mono-ethnic Areas ........................................... 129
6.3.2 Low Educational Levels Impede an Integration into the Employment Market ......................................................................... 137
6.3.3 The Exclusion from Public Services ................................................. 145
6.4 Internal Displacement in Lead-contaminated Camps ................................... 150
6.5 The Strategy for Integration of Roma, Ashkali and Egyptians .................... 156
6.5.1 Return and Re-Integration................................................................. 156
6.5.2 Security and Police Services ............................................................. 157
6.5.3 Housing and Informal Settlements.................................................... 158
6.5.4 Education .......................................................................................... 159
6.5.5 Employment ...................................................................................... 161
6.5.6 Registration and Documents ............................................................. 163
6.5.7 Health and Social Issues ................................................................... 164
6.5.8 Summary and Preliminary Conclusion on the Strategy .................... 166
6.6 Other Factors Influencing the Return of the RAE ........................................ 168
6.6.1 The Role of the Roma in Europe ...................................................... 169
6.6.2 Forced Returns from Western Europe .............................................. 174
6.7 Preliminary Conclusion and Policy Recommendations ............................... 178
7. The Serbian Community ..................................................................................... 188
7.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 188
7.2 The Displacement and the Return of the Serbs to Kosovo ........................... 192
7.2.1 The Displacement of the Serbs and their Conditions in Exile .......... 192
7.2.2 The Slow Return of the Serbs to Kosovo.......................................... 196
7.3 The Challenges and the Opportunities in their Return Process .................... 199
7.3.1 The Conflict between the Albanians and the Serbs .......................... 200
7.3.2 The Parallel Institutions Funded and Organized by Belgrade .......... 209
7.3.3 The Discrimination in Public Life .................................................... 223
7.4 The Unsolved Status of Kosovo Influences the Return of Kosovo Serbs .... 232
7.4.1 A Long-term Solution for Kosovo? .................................................. 235
7.4.2 The Unsolved Status Derogates the Likelihood of Property Repossessions ................................................................................... 242
7.5 Preliminary Conclusion and Policy Recommendations ............................... 244
8. The Bosniak and the Gorani Community .......................................................... 252
Preface to the Existing Material ............................................................................. 252
8.1 Introduction: Muslim Slavs in Kosovo – the Bosniaks and the Gorani ....... 253
8.1.1 The Bosniaks and their Identity ........................................................ 253
8.1.2 The Goranis – Separation from the Bosniaks ................................... 255
8.1.3 Political Engagement and the Differentiation between the Bosniaks and the Goranis ................................................................................. 258
8.2 The Displacement and the Return of the Bosniaks and the Goranis ............ 261
8.2.1 Displacement..................................................................................... 261
8.2.2 Return of the Bosniaks and the Goranis to Kosovo .......................... 263
8.3 Challenges and Opportunities in the Return Process of the Bosniaks .......... 267
8.3.1 The Bosniaks’ Role in Kosovo ......................................................... 267
8.3.2 Access to Education for the Bosniak Community ............................ 270
8.4 Challenges and Opportunities in the Return Process of Goranis .................. 273
8.4.1 The Goranis’ Role in the Society ...................................................... 273
8.4.2 Emigration as a Survival Strategy or Depopulation of Dragash/Dragaš? ............................................................................... 279
8.4.2.1 Migration as a Survival Strategy? ....................................... 279
8.4.2.2 Emigration Reduces the Chances for Sustainable Integration ....................................................... 283
8.5 Preliminary Conclusion and Policy Recommendations ............................... 284
8.5.1 Preliminary Conclusion on the Bosniak Returnees .......................... 284
8.5.2 Preliminary Conclusion on the Gorani Community’s Returns ......... 289
9. Summary of the Communities’ Returns ............................................................ 292
9.1 The Roma, the Ashkali, and the Egyptian Communities.............................. 292
9.2 The Serbian Community ............................................................................... 293
9.3 The Bosniak and the Gorani Community ..................................................... 293
10. SWOT Analysis and Policy Recommendations ................................................. 295
10.1 Strengths ....................................................................................................... 295
10.2 Weaknesses ................................................................................................... 296
10.3 Opportunities ................................................................................................ 299
10.4 Threats .......................................................................................................... 300
10.5 Policy Recommendations ............................................................................. 305
11. Wrapping Up: Evaluation of the Research Questions ...................................... 311
PART V: CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION ................................................... 320
12. Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 320
Bibliography ................................................................................................................. 324
German Summary ......................................................................................................... 340