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Crowdsourcing and digitalization of electoral integrity

a comparative analysis of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda

Die Mehrzahl der Staaten zählt heute zu den Unterzeichnern globaler Normen zur Durchführung von nationalen Wahlen. Während digitale Partizipationsmöglichkeiten, insbesondere Crowdsourcing, zur Wahlbeobachtung eine zunehmende Vebreitung finden, bestehen noch immer Zweifel bezüglich der angewendeten Formen und Verfahren und ihrer Rolle bei der Beobachtung von Wahlen. Diese Studie analysiert die neuen digitalen Crowdsourcing-Verfahren die bei den Wahlen in Uganda 2011, Kenia 2013 und Tansania 2015 genutzt wurden. Die Studie basiert auf einer most-similar Fallauswahl, primären und sekundären Quellen und halb-strukturierten Interviews sowie Dokumentanalyse. Als analytisches Rahmenwerk dienen die Konzepte des invented und des invited space, der hybriden Wahlbeobachtung und des elektoralen Zyklus.

In the contemporary world, most countries are signatories of global norms governing democratic conduct of elections. While digital participatory methods, especially crowdsourcing, are becoming more common in monitoring electoral procedures, there are uncertainties in terms of the modes and methods employed, and its role on mapping electoral incidents. This study analyses emerging digital crowdsourced method and citizen-generated voices in the Ugandan 2011, Kenyan 2013 and Tanzanian 2015 general elections. The study uses most similar systems design, primary and secondary data sources such as semi-structured face-to-face interviews, datasets and document analysis. The concepts of invented and invited spaces, hybrid monitoring and electoral cycle serve as analytical framework in this research.

Titel: Crowdsourcing and digitalization of electoral integrity
Untertitel: a comparative analysis of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda
Verfasser: Shayo, Deodatus Patrick GND
Gutachter: Kersting, Norbert GND
Organisation: FB 06: Erziehungswissenschaft und Sozialwissenschaften
Dokumenttyp: Dissertation/Habilitation
Medientyp: Text
Erscheinungsdatum: 2017
Publikation in MIAMI: 17.01.2018
Datum der letzten Änderung: 17.01.2018
Schlagwörter: Crowdsourcing; Digitalisierung; elektorale Integrität; Wahlbeobachtung; Bürgerbeteiligung; Ost-Afrika
crowdsourcing; digitalization; electoral integrity; election monitoring; citizen participation; East Africa
Fachgebiete: Politikwissenschaft
Sprache: Deutsch
Format: PDF-Dokument
URN: urn:nbn:de:hbz:6-39189608581
Permalink: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:hbz:6-39189608581
Onlinezugriff:
Inhalt:
List of Figures v
List of Tables v
List of Graphs vii
1 Research Introduction ................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Background conditions ............................................................................................ 7
1.3 Motivation of the research ..................................................................................... 17
1.4 Objective and research questions ........................................................................... 22
1.5 The conceptual framework .................................................................................... 22
1.5.1 The invited and invented space ...................................................................... 23
1.5.2 Hybrid crowdsourced elections monitoring ................................................... 27
1.5.3 The electoral cycle .......................................................................................... 29
1.6 Research contributions ........................................................................................... 31
1.7 Structure of the thesis ............................................................................................ 34
2 The Political Context in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda ........................................ 36
2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 36
2.2 One-party systems .................................................................................................. 39
2.2.1 Kenya .............................................................................................................. 39
2.2.2 Tanzania.......................................................................................................... 41
2.2.3 Uganda ............................................................................................................ 44
2.3 The transition from one-party systems to the multi-party politics ......................... 46
2.3.1 Kenya .............................................................................................................. 49
2.3.2 Tanzania.......................................................................................................... 50
2.3.3 Uganda ............................................................................................................ 51
2.4 Electoral democracy under multi-party system ..................................................... 53
2.4.1 Kenya .............................................................................................................. 54
2.4.2 Tanzania.......................................................................................................... 57
2.4.3 Uganda ............................................................................................................ 59
2.5 Voter turnout in multi-party electoral democracy ................................................. 60
2.6 The role of electoral authorities in promoting electoral integrity .......................... 62
2.7 Chapter summary ................................................................................................... 69
3 Electoral Integrity ..................................................................................................... 71
3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 71
3.2 Overview of electoral integrity .............................................................................. 71
3.2.1 Research on electoral integrity ....................................................................... 76
3.3 Overview of electoral fraud ................................................................................... 82
3.3.1 Research on election fraud ............................................................................. 84
3.4 Context of elections monitoring ............................................................................ 89
3.4.1 Established election monitoring mission reports ............................................ 92
3.5 Chapter summary ................................................................................................. 103
4 Sourcing the Crowd for the Greater Election Integrity ...................................... 104
4.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 104
4.2 Crowdsourcing defined ........................................................................................ 104
4.3 Crowdsourced election monitoring ...................................................................... 107
4.4 Types of crowdsourced monitoring of elections .................................................. 110
4.4.1 Bounded crowd-monitors ............................................................................. 112
4.4.2 Unbounded crowd-monitors ......................................................................... 113
4.4.3 Passive crowd-monitors ................................................................................ 114
4.5 Crowdsourcing in the digital age and why it matters .......................................... 116
4.6 Introducing digital Uchaguzi crowdsourcing cases ............................................. 126
4.6.1 Uchaguzi Kenya 2013 election ..................................................................... 128
4.6.1.1 Digital communication channels ........................................................... 129
4.6.2 Uchaguzi Tanzania 2015 election ................................................................ 130
4.6.2.1 Digital communication channels ........................................................... 132
4.6.3 Uchaguzi Uganda 2011 election ................................................................... 134
4.6.3.1 Digital communication channels ........................................................... 135
4.7 Chapter summary ................................................................................................. 135
5 Mapping Digital Participatory Communication Technologies ........................... 137
5.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 137
5.2 Digital divide or digital inclusion? ...................................................................... 138
5.2.1 Global trends in digital communication technologies .................................. 140
5.2.2 Digital technologies in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda ................................. 144
5.2.2.1 Internet usage ........................................................................................ 147
5.2.2.2 Mobile phone technology ...................................................................... 149
5.2.2.3 Fixed telephone ..................................................................................... 151
5.2.2.4 Social networks ..................................................................................... 152
5.2.2.5 Internet and mobile use by age .............................................................. 154
5.2.2.6 Mobile money transfer system .............................................................. 156
5.2.3 Media freedom .............................................................................................. 158
5.2.3.1 The use of news media .......................................................................... 159
5.2.4 ICT use in elections ...................................................................................... 163
5.3 Chapter summary ................................................................................................. 164
6 Methodological Procedures .................................................................................... 166
6.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 166
6.2 Research designs .................................................................................................. 166
6.2.1 Most similar systems and most different systems design ............................. 167
6.2.1.1 Most similar systems design ................................................................. 167
6.2.1.2 Most different systems design ............................................................... 169
6.2.1.3 The choice of most similar systems design ........................................... 170
6.3 Selection of cases ................................................................................................. 171
6.3.1 The rationale for selection of cases for comparative analysis ...................... 173
6.4 Research methods ................................................................................................ 179
6.4.1 Uchaguzi crowdsourced data sets ................................................................. 181
6.4.1.1 Getting access to the Uchaguzi crowdsourced data sets ....................... 182
6.4.1.2 Researching Uchaguzi crowdsourced data sets ..................................... 184
6.4.2 The logic of sampling ................................................................................... 187
6.4.3 Collecting primary and secondary data ........................................................ 188
6.4.3.1 Research context and timing ................................................................. 188
6.4.3.2 Qualitative semi-structured interviews.................................................. 189
6.4.3.3 Document analysis ................................................................................ 191
6.5 Data processing and analysis ............................................................................... 192
6.6 Scope and limitation of the research .................................................................... 193
6.7 Chapter summary ................................................................................................. 194
7 Crowdsourcing in Action: Evidence from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda ........ 195
7.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 195
7.2 Uchaguzi crowdsourced methodology ................................................................. 196
7.2.1 The network of partnerships ......................................................................... 198
7.2.1.1 Kenya .................................................................................................... 200
7.2.1.2 Tanzania ................................................................................................ 200
7.2.1.3 Uganda .................................................................................................. 201
7.2.2 Recruitment and training of crowd-monitors ............................................... 201
7.2.2.1 Kenya .................................................................................................... 202
7.2.2.2 Tanzania ................................................................................................ 204
7.2.2.3 Uganda .................................................................................................. 204
7.2.3 Verification of crowd-monitors election information .................................. 205
7.2.3.1 Kenya .................................................................................................... 210
7.2.3.2 Tanzania ................................................................................................ 211
7.2.3.3 Uganda .................................................................................................. 213
7.2.4 Uchaguzi crowdsourced categories of observation data............................... 214
7.2.5 The structure of Uchaguzi crowdsourced datasets ....................................... 218
7.2.6 Channels for generating crowdsourced observation data ............................. 221
7.2.7 Monitoring response of citizen-generated data ............................................ 222
7.2.8 Uchaguzi crowdsourced monitoring team .................................................... 223
7.3 Uchaguzi crowdsourced citizen-generated observation information ................... 225
7.3.1 Crowdsourced information in Kenya 2013 general elections ...................... 227
7.3.1.1 Crowdsourced generated negative feedback data in Kenya .................. 234
7.3.1.2 Crowdsourced generated positive feedback data in Kenya ................... 238
7.3.2 Crowdsourced information in Tanzania 2015 general elections .................. 239
7.3.2.1 Crowdsourced generated negative feedback data in Tanzania .............. 243
7.3.2.2 Crowdsourced generated positive feedback data in Tanzania .............. 247
7.3.3 Crowdsourced information in Uganda 2011 general elections .................... 248
7.3.3.1 Crowdsourced generated negative feedback data in Uganda ................ 253
7.3.3.2 Crowdsourced generated positive feedback data in Uganda ................. 256
7.4 Comparing crowdsourced citizen-generated observation information ................ 256
7.4.1 Bounded and unbounded crowdsourced election observation data .............. 258
7.4.2 Verified and unverified crowdsourced election observation data ................ 260
7.4.3 Technology for generating crowdsourced election observation data ........... 262
7.5 Limitations of Uchaguzi crowdsourced datasets ................................................. 264
7.6 Chapter summary ................................................................................................. 266
8 Detecting Threats to Electoral Integrity through Digital Crowdsourcing ........ 268
8.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 268
8.2 Uchaguzi monitoring threats to elections with integrity ...................................... 268
8.2.1 Categorizing crowdsourced election fraud data ........................................... 271
8.2.1.1 Refining crowdsourced sub-categories for election fraud data ............. 272
8.2.1.2 Digital crowdsourced election fraud data.............................................. 274
8.2.1.2.1 The pre-election fraud data ................................................................. 277
8.2.1.2.2 The election campaign fraud data ....................................................... 278
8.2.1.2.3 The election-day fraud data ................................................................. 281
8.2.1.2.4 The post-election period fraud data ..................................................... 282
8.3 Chapter summary ................................................................................................. 284
9 The Challenges and Potential of Digital Crowdsourced Method ....................... 285
9.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 285
9.2 Creating synergy for election monitoring ............................................................ 285
9.2.1 Observation and validation of data ............................................................... 286
9.2.2 Production and dissemination of election data ............................................. 287
9.2.3 Evaluating quality of elections ..................................................................... 289
9.3 The challenges of digital crowdsourced method ................................................. 290
9.3.1 Late deployment ........................................................................................... 290
9.3.2 Digital crowdsourcing partnerships .............................................................. 292
9.3.3 Funding and human capital resources .......................................................... 295
9.3.4 Quality of election observation information ................................................. 296
9.3.5 Verification for data integrity ....................................................................... 296
9.3.6 Response and feedback ................................................................................. 298
9.3.7 Interference with crowdsourced digital technologies ................................... 299
9.4 The potential of digital crowdsourced method .................................................... 302
9.4.1 Rapid dissemination of election information................................................ 302
9.4.2 Using simple mobile technology .................................................................. 304
9.4.3 Keep election stakeholders on check ............................................................ 306
9.4.4 Monitoring election cycle ............................................................................. 307
9.5 Chapter summary ................................................................................................. 309
10 Towards Electoral Integrity in a Crowdsourcing Age......................................... 311
10.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 311
10.2 Tying it all together .............................................................................................. 311
10.2.1 Similarities and differences of results .......................................................... 311
10.2.2 Summary of results ....................................................................................... 322
10.2.3 Concluding observations .............................................................................. 327
10.2.4 An agenda for digital crowdsourced monitoring of elections ...................... 332
Bibliography……..………………………………………………………………………340